Resilient microgrids with high dynamic stability in the presence of massive integration of variable renewables

This thesis deals with the stability issues introduced by the interconnection of massive renewables into an isolated microgrid. This research aims to identify the problems related to the topic, the indices to help understand the issues, and the strategy to enhance microgrid stability from the power system point of view.In the first part, a state of the art on the evolution of power stability is addressed. A short history of power system stability since its first identification and how it has evolved is firstly presented. This part also provides a literature review of the power system stability, including its classification, and how it has evolved due to two reasons: the microgrid concept and the trend towards the integration of more inverter-based generation. A review of the practical indices for grid stability assessment is also reported, including the ones that we propose. This part is also useful for analyzing the positioning of this PhD research.The second part of thesis presents the efforts to enhance the dynamic stability of microgrids characterized by massive renewable penetration. The main challenges and the current efforts are reviewed, which have shown that the current solutions focus on maintaining the philosophy of a classical power grid. With the advent of more intermittent energy, the current efforts have proven to be costly. Therefore, a new perspective is proposed. Here, the generating elements and the customers are exposed with higher deviations in voltage and frequency, which are necessary so that that the power equilibrium and the stability of the microgrid can be maintained. This perspective is suitable with the microgrid concept to realize the dream of universal electricity.The concept is then developed into a novel regulation strategy in which the system frequency and voltage are maintained in such a way to keep their ratio essentially constant around 1 (p.u. voltage to p.u. frequency). This strategy can potentially be implemented on all grid forming technologies. The benefits of employing this strategy include assurance that the electrical machinery is not harmed, plug-and-play feature, compatibility with current grid-tied inverter technologies, and no need for fast communication systems. Finally, this proposed strategy is easy to implement and does not require revolution in terms of power system equipment and control. This implementation of this concept provides a very valuable piece of flexibility: time, which enhances the resilience and stability of a microgrid. However, wider frequency and voltage deviations occur and have to be accepted by all the actors within the microgrid. A validation through computer simulations in Power Factory and real-time hardware in the loop experiments has been carried out with satisfactory results. Learn more